All You Need To Know About Philippine Correction of Entries | Philippine Statistics Authority
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What you need to know about Philippine Correction of Entries is here, albeit not centering on judicial proceedings on most part. Conversely, this will be mainly focusing on the administrative procedure side, as regulated by the the Office of the Civil Registrar in cooperation with the Philippine Statistics Authority.

We will, as well, succinctly point out that correction of entries means rectification of any details placed in certain documents officially registered with the office of the civil registrar within the Philippine State in relation to the civil status of an individual.

These details relative to the civil status of a person refer to acts, events, or judicial decrees.

Likewise, we shall briefly tackle how to secure relevant registry certificates/documents, such as Birth, Marriage, and Death Certificates and Marriage License before the Philippine Statistics Authority [PSA].

Acts, Events, and Judicial Decrees Related to the Civil Status of Individuals

Acts, events, and judicial decrees concerning the civil status of persons shall be recorded in the civil register.[1]Article 407, New Civil Code of the Philippines

Moreover, under Article 408[2]Article 408, New Civil Code of the Philippines of the New Civil Code, it states that:

“The following shall be entered in the civil register:

(1) Births;

(2) marriages;

(3) deaths;

(4) legal separations;

(5) annulments of marriage;

(6) judgments declaring marriages void from the beginning;

(7) legitimations;

(8) adoptions;

(9) acknowledgments of natural children;

(10) naturalization;

(11) loss, or

(12) recovery of citizenship;

(13) civil interdiction;

(14) judicial determination of filiation;

(15) voluntary emancipation of a minor; and

(16) changes of name.”[3]Ibid.

Events such as birth, marriage, and death, inter alia, of an individual are occasions which must be given importance. These transpire during an individual’s lifetime.

Let alone the emotional vacuum and sad feeling, in case of death of an individual, whose civil status is the subject of changes or corrections, it will, legally, affect the deceased’s family or any interested party over matters in relation to the former’s estate or the claims that may eventually surface, after the traditional mourning of the family members.

Vital occurrences, such as mentioned, among others, shall be registered once [and must be immediately as far as practicable] before the Office of the Civil Registrar, which has jurisdiction over the locality where the concerned person resides.

Article 412 of the New Civil Code provides that, “no entry in a civil register shall be changed or corrected, without judicial order.” While this is true, Republic Act No. 9048,[4]R. A. No. 9048 as amended by Republic Act No. 10172,[5]R. A. No. 10172 modified this to a certain extent, as will be frequently explained all throughout.

Philippine Correction of Entries in General | Judicial Recourse

In one case[6]Republic of the Philippines vs. Valencia, 225 Phil. 408, 413 [1986] the Supreme Court declared that a petition for correction of entry under Rule 108 of the Rules of Court covers not only clerical errors, but also substantial changes.[7]Tan vs. Office of the Local Civil Registrar of the City of Manila, G.R. No. 211435, April 10, 2019

The difference lies only on the procedure which would govern the correction sought. “If the correction is clerical, then the procedure to be adopted is summary. If the rectification affects the civil status, citizenship or nationality of a party, it is deemed substantial, and the procedure to be adopted is adversary“.[8]Ibid.

At the outset, it is best to point out that Rule 108 of the Rules of Court[9]Special Proceedings, Rules of Court deals with all the acts, events, and/or judicial decrees that are officially registered in the Office of the Civil Registrar, be it in local or national scope.

Corollarily, if the correction will involve harmless or innocuous errors or merely clerical, Rule 108 of the Rules of Court of the Philippines shall be applicable; yet, the procedure in hearing a petition for correction for that purpose will only be summary in nature.

On the other hand, if the error sought to be rectified or cancelled is substantial in character, as it will affect the civil status, citizenship or nationality of a party or any person interested in the proceedings, the nature of the proceedings shall become adversarial.

Thus, the proceedings in the said rule are not limited to officially registered documents containing details, as most people know, of a person only as to his:

  • First Name
  • Nickname
  • Day and Month in the Date of Birth
  • Sex/Gender

Recent statute[10]R. A. No. 9048, Supra. promulgated, nevertheless, effectively amended the provisions of Articles 376[11]“No person can change his name or surname without judicial authority.” and 412 of the New Civil Code with respect to corrections in the Birth Certificate[12]Administrative Circular 1, Series of 2001 or other registry documents bearing the first name, nickname, month and day in the date of birth, or sex/gender of the person affected.

Subsequently, Republic Act No. 10172 has been enacted, amending Sections 1, 2, 5 and 8 of R. A. No. 9048.[13]Administrative Circular 1, Series of 2012

These recent enactments and amendments, now, allow administrative [not judicial, without going to court] corrections on the above matters, provided the errors are clerical, harmless, and/or innocuous in nature.

Again, it bears emphasizing that, except for corrections of first name, nickname, date of birth, or sex/gender of an individual contained in the officially registered document before the civil registrar, such as but not limited to Certificate of Live Birth, all other acts, events, and judicial decrees concerning the civil status of persons which are sought to be corrected must be through a petition filed before a competent court, whether they be clerical or substantial errors.

Section 4 of Republic Act No. 9048 is still Operative

While R. A. No. 10172 is an amendatory law of R. A. No. 9048, the former only pertains to modifications in Sections 1, 2, 5, and 8 of the latter.

As regards the change of name using the grounds mentioned in Section 4 of R. A. No. 9048, the same may still be corrected though administrative proceedings. Perforce:

“Grounds for Change of First Name or Nickname. – The petition for change of first name or nickname may be allowed in any of the following cases:

“(1) The petitioner finds the first name or nickname to be ridiculous, tainted with dishonor or extremely difficult to write or pronounce.

“(2) The new first name or nickname has been habitually and continuously used by the petitioner and he has been publicly known by that by that first name or nickname in the community: or

“(3) The change will avoid confusion.”[14]Section 4, R. A. No. 9048, Supra.

Mistakes, Inaccuracies, and other Similar Oversights

Everyone commits mistakes. Indeed, everyone normally makes such and, eventually, learns his lesson.

But how about encountering a mistake that may, otherwise, greatly affect one’s identity for the rest of his life?

For instance, people often correct their Birth Certificate to take the licensure exam.

The Professional Regulation Commission [Philippines] is pretty strict. It requires your name be exactly as it is spelled on your Birth Certificate.

Republic Act No. 10172 may, nonetheless, provide the summary remedy, subject to its applicability, requirements, and guidelines.

R. A. No. 10172 has been established in order to give justice to individuals who may have been victims of human errors or miscommunication of the intended details, without their faults.

It has been known that sometimes an incorrect information, for instance in a birth certificate, is not caused by spelling or typing mistake.

Rather, the person registering the same may have provided the wrong details or circumstances.

As we go further, this will benefit not only to the owner, who seeks correction, but also the interested parties who will gain from such fix.

This may subsequently find importance when what is at stake are:

  • estate succession
  • background checking for designated purposes
  • even ensuring the legitimacy of one’s intention and his legal availability

The correction of the details will not only give peace of mind to the beneficiary but also satisfaction that what he desires has come to fruition.

Character of Permanency, unless officially and validly corrected

The entries in the civil register are permanent in nature. Any modification, alteration, or correction is not outright permissible, unless decreed by the court or corrected administratively under the Clerical Error Law or the Republic Act [R. A.] No.  9048, as amended by R. A. No. 10172.

Having this in mind, people should always be aware, careful, and prudent in registering the information in the civil registry to avoid nuisance, issues, or dilemma in the future.

Since this cannot be avoided, we strive hard to help you in this discussion.

Furthermore, the original record of the corresponding document remains. The correction made is only annotated on the original civil registry document.

Collection of Data | Responsibility of LGU through the Local Civil Registrar

Registration of vital events is the responsibility of the Local Government Units [LGU] through the Local Civil Registrars.

Nevertheless, it falls under the technical supervision of the Civil Registrar General of the Philippine Statistics Authority to consolidate statistical activities of the government therein.[15]Commonwealth Act No. 591

The Philippine Statistics Authority [PSA] provides civil registration services to the general public by issuing certified copies of civil registry documents, such as birth, marriage, death, and Certificate of No Marriage (CENOMAR) or an Advisory of Marriages.

In addition to the issuance of certified copies and authentication of civil registry documents, requests for annotated certificates, affected by court decrees and legal instruments, are administered by the PSA.

The PSA also implements and regulates Republic Act 10172, Republic Act 9048, and supplemental reports.

Ease of Transactions | Utilizing Contemporary Technologies

With the technologies we have, one can now request for a copy of birth, marriage, death, and Certificate of No Marriage online, subject to the PSA’s verification. This will avoid long queues, which the applicant will suffer had it not been for the aforesaid modernization.

This will educate the readers about the process on how to get their respective birth certificate, marriage certificate, certificate of no marriage, and death certificate, in such a manner that is relatively convenient than before.

Clerical Errors Correction | Administrative Proceedings

It is a welcome development that there are now administrative avenues to correct clerical errors in a registry document, which were not in place prior.

With the advent of R. A. No. 9048, as amended by R. A. No. 10172, judicial recourse, in connection with specific entry corrections of clerical errors, is not anymore mandatory.

As repeatedly mentioned, however, this does not mean that all entries can be rectified without resort to court, even if clerical ones.

How do I file a petition for correction of clerical error in the Philippines? | Administratively

Initially, you must know where to file the petition. In addition and as mentioned above, only clerical errors, harmless, and innocuous ones, in the officially registered documents before the civil registrar concerning the civil status of a person as specified in R. A. No. 9048, as amended by R. A. No. 10172, can be administratively corrected.

Where to file?

Under Administrative Order No. 1, Series of 2012,[16]Rules And Regulations Governing the Implementation of Republic Act No. 10172 it states that:

“The verified petition may be filed with the C/MCR [City/Municipal Civil Registrar] of the city or municipality or the Philippine Consulate, as the case may be, where the birth record containing the day and/or month in the date of birth to be corrected is registered.[17]Ibid.

“When the petitioner has migrated to another place within the Philippines and it is not practical for such party, in terms of transportation expenses, time and effort to appear before the C/MCR of the place of birth, the petition may be filed with the C/MCR of the place where the petitioner is residing or domiciled.[18]Ibid.

“Any person whose birth record was reported abroad and presently residing in the Philippines, the petition may be filed with the C/MCR of the place of residence following the procedures of migrant petition.[19]Ibid.

“Any person whose birth record was registered in the Philippines, or in any Philippine Consulate, but who is presently residing or domiciled in a foreign country, may file the petition with the nearest Philippine Consulate.[20]Ibid.

What is the procedure and what are the supporting documents?

In filing petition for correction of clerical error in the Philippines, the same shall not be processed, unless the petitioner supports it with the required documents.

The supporting documents should be authentic and genuine, or else, the petition shall be denied or disapproved. The following are the supporting documents that are admissible as basic requirements:

1] Certified machine copy of the certificate containing the alleged erroneous entry.

2] Not less than two (2) public or private documents upon which the correction shall be based.  Examples of these documents are the following:

Documents Upon Which Correction Should be BasedDocuments Upon Which Correction Should be Based
baptismal certificateschool record
voter's affidavitbusiness record
employment recordinsurance policies or records
driver's licenseland titles
GSIS or SSS recordcertificate of land transfer
medical recordbank passbook
NBI or police clearancecivil registry records of ascendants or others similar documents or identification

3] Notice and Certificate of Posting

4] Other documents as may be required by the City or Municipal Civil Registrar

After complying these documents, petitioner will undergo the following steps:

1] Petitioner submits documents subject for correction to employee/personnel of the Department for evaluation of requirements.

2] Petitioner, then, goes to Department Head for interview.

3] Proceed to Counter for payment of required fees.

Under the Administrative Order No. 1, Series of 2012,[21]Supra. the concerned city or municipal civil registrar is hereby authorized to collect from every petitioner depending on the transaction:

TRANSACTION CORRESPONDING FEES
Filing of the correction of clerical and typographical error (R.A. 9048) P 1,000.00
Filing fee for change of first name or nickname P 3,000.00
Service Fee for Migrant Petition for Correction of Clerical and typographical error P 500.00
Service Fee for Migrant Petition for change of the First Name or Nickname P 1,000.00
Petition to correct the day and/or month in the date of birth or sex (R.A. 10172) P 3,000.00
Service Fee for Migrant Petition for correction of clerical error in the day and/or month in the date of birth (RA10172) P 1,000.00

4] Return to the personnel in-charge and present official receipt for recording, posting, and further instruction.

It should be noted that the petition shall be posted for 10 consecutive days.

Petitioner is advised to follow-up their petition with the Office two (2) months after receipt of the said petition to determine if the same has been approved or impugned by the Office of the Civil Registrar.

Furthermore, petitions for change of first name, correction of sex, or day and month of birth in the birth certificate shall be published in a newspaper once a week for two consecutive weeks.

Also, migrant petitions for change of first name or nickname shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation, be it in local or national newspaper.

What entries in the civil registry may be changed or corrected without a judicial order?

According to the Section 1 of Republic Act No. 10172, the following are the entries in the civil registry that may be changed or corrected without a judicial order:

  • clerical or typographical errors and change of the first name or the nickname;
  • day and month in the date of birth; or
  • sex of a person

The law allows this administrative correction provided it is obviously clear that there has been a clerical/typographical error, oversight, or mistake in the entry.

Such error can now be rectified or changed by the respective city or municipal civil registrar or consul general in accordance with the provisions of the law and implementing rules and regulations.

Also stated in Section 2 of Republic Act No. 10172, clerical or typographical error as a mistake committed, in the performance of clerical work in writing, copying, transcribing or typing an entry in the civil register that is harmless and innocuous, can be administratively fixed, such as:

  • misspelled name or misspelled place of birth
  • mistake in the entry of day and month in the date of birth
  • the sex of the person, which is visible to the eyes or obvious to the understanding [can be corrected or changed only by reference to other prevailing records]

Nonetheless, this does not involve the change of nationality, age, or status of the petitioner as these indispensably require judicial order.

What are the requirements and procedures in obtaining the following from PSA and NSO?

The Philippine Statistics Office [PSA] has been created through the merging of NSO [National Statistics Office], National Statistical Coordination Board, Bureau of Agricultural Statistics of the Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics of the Department of Labor.

Hence, PSA absorbs NSO.

Sections 3 and 5 of RA 10625 mandate the reorganization of the Philippine Statistical System and the creation of the PSA through the merging of the NSO, National Statistical Coordination Board, Bureau of Agricultural Statistics of the Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics of the Department of Labor.[22]IRR of Philippine Statistical Act of 2013 takes effect, NSO and three other major statistical agencies merge

Birth Certificate | How will the details be obtained and placed?

The birth certificate is issued shortly after an individual’s birth and after the mother’s physician, nurse, midwife, ‘hilot‘ or anybody who attended the delivery of the child fills-up the required forms to be submitted to the Local Civil Registrar’s Office.

The details of the relevant information may have been taken from the mother or from some other helpful resources.

However, the primary declaration must come from the physician or midwife, who has been in attendance with the mother gave birth. In default thereof, either of the parents declaration will be sufficient.[23]Section 5, Act No. 3753

In case wherein birth occurs aboard a vehicle, vessel, or airplane while in transit, registration of the said birth shall be a joint responsibility of the driver, captain or pilot and the parents, as the case maybe inferred from the same Section 5[24]Ibid. of the Republic Act No. 3753.

How to facilitate the process of securing the Birth Certificate from the PSA?

For those who wish to have another copy of their birth certificate, there is a walk-in application.

The owner of the birth certificate or any of his authorized representatives can apply in any branch of the Philippine Statistics Office.

Upon completion of the process, the same will be released on the same outlet on the date specified in the receipt.

Interested party shall provide the following information in order to facilitate the verification and issuance of certification:

  • Complete name of the child (first name, middle name, last name)
  • Complete name of the father
  • Complete maiden name of the mother
  • Date of birth (month, day, year)
  • Place of birth (city/municipality, province)
  • Whether or not registered late. (If it was registered late, indicate the year when it was registered.
  • Complete name and address of requesting party
  • Relationship to the child
  • Number of copies needed
  • Purpose of the certification

Another way is through online application. You may watch this video tutorial:

Philippine Statistics Authority Helpline Philippine Statistics Authority Online

You may visit these Online Application Portals:

Whether walk-in or online, it requires the above stated information to facilitate verification and payment of necessary fees for the issuance of certification.

Marriage License and Marriage Certificate

A marriage certificate is a document containing important details of marriage. But first, the couple must obtain marriage license to make the celebration legal.

A marriage license is considered to be the most important document required for couple to be allowed to marry in the Philippines.

There will be no church, judge, or other persons authorized to solemnize marriage will allow you to marry without this license.

To obtain marriage license, you have to prepare the original and photocopies of the following documents from each of the couple:

  • Original or certified true copy of birth certificate or baptismal certificate
  • CENOMAR
  • Cedula
  • Recent 1 x 1 ID photo

For some special cases, the couple must submit an additional requirement:

  • Bride or groom aged 18 to 20: Affidavit of parental consent
  • Bride or groom aged 21 to 25: Affidavit of parental advice
  • Widowed: Death certificate of the deceased spouse (instead of the birth or baptismal certificate)
  • Annulled previous marriage: Court decision and decree of absolute finality (instead of the birth or baptismal certificate)
  • Divorced: Final decree of absolute divorce (instead of the birth or baptismal certificate)
  • Foreigners: Valid passport and Certificate of Legal Capacity to Contract Marriage or any equivalent document issued by a foreign embassy in the Philippines (instead of the birth or baptismal certificate and CENOMAR)

After securing all the requirements, you and your partner should personally apply for marriage license together.

  • Visit the local civil registrar office in the city or municipality where you or your partner reside.
  • Submit the marriage license requirements. The designated officer will check and evaluate those documents.
  • Pay the necessary marriage license fee to the treasury or treasurer’s office. Present the official receipt to the local civil registrar officer.
  • Fill out four copies of the marriage license application form provided by the local civil registrar office. Make sure to accomplish the bride’s and groom’s information sections correctly and completely.
  • The couple should attend the required pre-marriage counseling and family planning seminars. This can be held on the same day of the marriage license application within the city or municipal hall complex.
  • Get the Certificate of Attendance and submit it to the local civil registrar office.
  • After 10 days, return to the local civil registrar office and claim your marriage license. Two (2) copies will be issued, one for your personal copy and another one that you’ll give to your solemnizing officer.

The license shall be valid up to 120 days from its issuance.[25]Article 20, Family Code

After the wedding vows are done, the marriage certificate shall be signed by the marrying couple, as well the officiant, and two witnesses, both of legal age.

Within 15 days of the marriage certificate signing, document must be forwarded to the city or municipal hall and registered at the local civil registry office where the marriage or wedding took place.

After five [5] to ten [10] working days from registration of the marriage, you can get the marriage certificate at the local civil registrar office.

Below are the steps:

Present your valid ID

  • Fill out marriage contract application form
  • Pay a fee (the cost varies per local civil registrar office).
  • The certified true copy of marriage certificate may be issued within the day, or a week after if you prefer it in security paper.

If you cannot personally claim your marriage certificate, you can assign a representative on your behalf to pick it up for you. The representative must present your authorization letter, your valid ID, and his valid ID.

Finally, marriage certificate can be requested by the interested party from the PSA. You are required to provide the following information to facilitate verification and issuance of certification:

  • Complete name of the husband
  • Complete name of the wife
  • Date of marriage
  • Place of marriage
  • Complete name and address of the requesting party
  • Number of copies needed
  • Purpose of the certification

Also, you can get your PSA-certified marriage certificate online via the PSA Serbilis website or PSAHelpline.ph.

When requesting for this document, you will be asked to provide the same information mentioned above to facilitate verification and issuance of certification.

Death Certificate

According to Section 5, P.D. 651, registration of death shall be made in the office of the Civil Registrar of the city or the municipality where the death occurred within thirty (30) days from the time of death.

In case the deceased was attended to by a physician, the latter must issue the necessary certificate of death within 48 hours after the death and submit the same to the local health officer of the place of death, who shall order its registration in the office of local civil registrar within the said period of thirty (30) days after death.

When requesting for death certificate in PSA, the interested party shall provide the following information in order to facilitate verification and issuance of certification:

  • Complete name of the deceased person
  • Date of death
  • Place of death
  • Place of marriage
  • Complete name and address of requesting party
  • Number of copies needed
  • Purpose of the certification

You can also get a death certificate online and get it delivered anywhere in the Philippines or Abroad by visiting the website of PSA Serbilis.

By availing such service, necessary fees shall be paid and the same information mentioned above will also be provided by the interested party to facilitate verification and issuance of certification.

Certificate of No Marriage [CENOMAR]

Certificate of No Marriage Record (CENOMAR) is the certification issued by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) stating that a person has not contracted to any marriage.

In the case of annulled, or declared void, marriages, this will serve as the Certificate of Singleness that can prove that the applicant is free to remarry.

The following are basic requirements needed when requesting CENOMAR:

1] Duly-accomplished CENOMAR Application Form which provides for the following information:

  • Complete name of the person
  • Complete name of the father
  • Complete maiden name of the mother
  • Date of birth
  • Place of birth
  • Complete name and address of requesting party
  • Number of copies needed
  • Purpose of the certification

2] At least 1 Valid Identification Card. Acceptable ID include:

  • Office or Company ID
  • SSS/GSIS/PhilHealth/Pag-IBIG ID
  • Driver’s License
  • Passport, PRC ID
  • Senior Citizen’s ID
  • Voter’s ID, NBI Clearance
  • Philippine Postal ID
  • PWD ID

3] Authorization letter signed by the owner (if the applicant will not be able to apply or claim the CENOMAR personally)

After completing the basic requirements, the interested party will head to the Evaluating Officer and have the form and documents checked for accuracy, authenticity, and legibility.

Once the documents are approved, go to the cashier to pay the application fee. Get the Official Receipt with a stamp containing the date and time of the release of your document.

Finally, go to the Releasing Area to receive the CENOMAR.

Furthermore, an interested party can get Certificate of No Marriage Record online via the PSA Serbilis website or PSAHelpline.ph.

When requesting for this document, necessary fees shall be paid and the same shall be asked to provide the information mentioned above to facilitate verification and issuance of certification.

Philippine Statistics Authority

The agency of the government which is tasked to carry out, enforce and administer civil registration functions in the country as provided for in Act No. 3753,[26]Law on Registry of Civil Status otherwise known as the Civil Registry Law, particularly, among others, those included in Section 1 of the said statute, to wit:

Section 1. Civil Register. – A civil register is established for recording the civil status of persons, in which shall be entered: (a) births; (b) deaths; (c) marriages; (d) annulments of marriages; (e) divorces; (f) legitimations; (g) adoptions; (h) acknowledgment of natural children; (i) naturalization; and (j) changes of name.

The Philippine Statistic Authority is a government agency and instrumentality, created under Republic Act No. 10625[27]R. A. No. 10625, An Act Reorganizing the Philippine Statistical System, Repealing for The Purpose Executive Order Numbered One Hundred Twenty-One, entitled “Reorganizing and Strengthening the … Continue reading and shall serve as the central statistical authority of the Philippine government on primary data collection.[28]Section 6 [a], R. A. No. 10625

The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), is the central statistical authority of the Philippine government that collects, compiles, analyzes and publishes statistical information on economic, social, demographic, political affairs and general affairs of the people of the Philippines and enforces the civil registration functions in the country.[29]Philippine Statistics Authority

It is an attached agency of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for purposes of policy coordination. The PSA comprises the PSA Board and offices on sectoral statistics, censuses and technical coordination, civil registration, Philippine registry office, central support and field statistical services.[30]Ibid.

The National Statistician, who is appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list of nominees submitted by a Special Committee and endorsed by the PSA Board Chairperson, is the head of the PSA and has a rank equivalent to an Undersecretary. [31]Ibid.

Aside from directing and supervising the general administration of the PSA, the National Statistician provides overall direction in the implementation of the Civil Registry Law and related issuances and exercise technical supervision over the civil registrars as Civil Registrar General.[32]Ibid.

Final Thoughts

The errors have serious consequences, especially when it concerns a person’s school and government records, when a he or she decides to get married, or when, for any legal purposes, an individual intends to use those registry documents.

However, in every problem, there is always a solution to think about. With the helpful laws discussed above, our request in correcting details in our certificates will save us from confusions.

One must note, nevertheless, that the law does not allow you to entirely change your name.

It only solves the problem and saves you costs relative to clerical, harmless, and/or innocuous errors on specific details in your registry documents, such as your Certificate of Live Birth.

Maybe, not all the concerns of the Filipinos, or any interested person desiring rectification, have been totally addressed regarding errors in the certificates/registry documents. All the same, we should be thankful that the system of correction has been improving as time goes by.

We leave it to the legislative body of the Philippine State. We trust that they will eventually find solutions to those matters, which have not yet been touched upon, for the good of the people and of the public service.

References

References
1 Article 407, New Civil Code of the Philippines
2 Article 408, New Civil Code of the Philippines
3 Ibid.
4 R. A. No. 9048
5 R. A. No. 10172
6 Republic of the Philippines vs. Valencia, 225 Phil. 408, 413 [1986]
7 Tan vs. Office of the Local Civil Registrar of the City of Manila, G.R. No. 211435, April 10, 2019
8 Ibid.
9 Special Proceedings, Rules of Court
10 R. A. No. 9048, Supra.
11 “No person can change his name or surname without judicial authority.”
12 Administrative Circular 1, Series of 2001
13 Administrative Circular 1, Series of 2012
14 Section 4, R. A. No. 9048, Supra.
15 Commonwealth Act No. 591
16 Rules And Regulations Governing the Implementation of Republic Act No. 10172
17 Ibid.
18 Ibid.
19 Ibid.
20 Ibid.
21 Supra.
22 IRR of Philippine Statistical Act of 2013 takes effect, NSO and three other major statistical agencies merge
23 Section 5, Act No. 3753
24 Ibid.
25 Article 20, Family Code
26 Law on Registry of Civil Status
27 R. A. No. 10625, An Act Reorganizing the Philippine Statistical System, Repealing for The Purpose Executive Order Numbered One Hundred Twenty-One, entitled “Reorganizing and Strengthening the Philippine Statistical System and For Other Purposes”
28 Section 6 [a], R. A. No. 10625
29 Philippine Statistics Authority
30 Ibid.
31 Ibid.
32 Ibid.
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